This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 23 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)
1.Gaikoku e iku toki pasopo–to ga irimasu. When we are going abroad, we need passport.
Usage:toki translates to “when”. In this example, “iku” is the u-form and base form of ikimasu which means “to go”. Gaikoku means foreign country or abroad. That’s why “Gaikoku e iku toki” literally means when we are going abroad. For the rest of the sentence, pasopo-to is “passport” in katakana and irimasu translates to “need or will need”.
2.Kono botan o osu to kikai ga ugokimasu. Push this button and the machine will work.
Sytanx: u-form verb + to
Usage:to has many uses. In this example it is use as “and” or a connector of two related complete thoughts. The first thought is “Kono botan o osu” which mean “Push this button” (this button push if you translate it literally). The second thought was Kikai ga ugokimasu which means the “machine will work”. Place the particle “to” at the middle and they became connected to each other. Pretty much like how you use “and” in English.