A:とうして まつやま さん が すき てす か。Why do you like Matsuyama？
B. さあ….まつやまさん な かわいし、けっこ だ し、 はんさむ な おとこ の ひと だ し。 uhmm..Because Matsuyama is cute,wonderful and a handsome man.
We use ‘shi’ or し when we want to state many reasons consecutively. It is placed after an adjective or the reason itself. For the example above ,
i-adjective ‘ Kawaii ‘ became ‘kawaishi’. Replace last i with shi. Because he is cute.
na-adjective ‘kekko na’ became kekko da shi. Replace na with ‘da shi’. Because he s wonderful.
Also a reason ending in desu, will result to desu becoming dashi. Like for the example above , ” hansamu na otoko no hito desu” became ”hansamu na otoko no hito da shi” . Because he’s a handsome man.
i adjective — drop i, add shi
Na adjective — drop na, add da shi
Reason desu — drop desu, add da shi
How about you？ Why do you like a certain person？
This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 25 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)
1. Ame ga futtara,ikimasen. if it rains, I will not go.
Syntax: ta-form verb +tara,consequences
Usage: The use of tara translates to “if” in english, only it is used in the end of the clause or condition. Like for this example “Ame ga futtara” directly translates to “rain falls if” if the sequence is to considered. The consequence is then express after. “I will not go”
2. Ame ga futtemo, ikimasu. Even if the rain falls, I will still go.
Syntax: te-form verb+mo, consequence
Usage: The use of “te+form verb + mo” here is to express “Even if” but also located at the end of the conditional clause. So for this example, if you translate it literally, “rain falls even if”. No matter what happens, even if it rain, he still would like to go. This is expressing extreme determination.
(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 22 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)
1.Korewa watashiga totta shashin desu. This is the picture that I took.
Syntax: subject +ta-form verb+object to describe
Usage: This is used in converting verb to adverb. Like in our example, totta the ta-form of torimasu which means take is an action that is used to describe the picture. So it’s more of describing the picture rather than be the action itself. it’s different from ” watashi wa kore shashin o torimashita” because this literally means “I took this picture”.
To illustrate more, lets take this as an example. Watashiwa kore eiga o mimashita. This translates to “I watched this movie”. If we’re going to convert this to “adverbial clause”, lets say we want it to be “This is the movie i watched”, then it has to be “Korewa watashiga mita eiga desu.”
2. Asoko ni iru hito wa Ri-san desu. The person over there is Ri.
Usage:iru is just the informal way of saying “imasu” which means existing. If we’re going to be polite, like we’re talking to our boss, we will say “Asoko ni imasu hito wa Ri-san desu.”
(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 20 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)
1. Ashita tokyo e iku. Tomorrow, I will go to Tokyo.
The ku-form of the verb is used when you want to express in informal way. It is often used between families and friends. Like for this example. Iku is the ku-form of ikimasu which is more polite and formal. Their meaning is just the same.
2.Mainichi isogashii. I am busy everyday.
When expressing informality for adjectives, it should be in the base form. Just like in the example above. If we’re going to show formality, we should have said Mainichi isogashii desu. If we’re going to put it in negative, meaning we’re going to say “not busy” it would be “Mainichi isogashikunai.” In formal form it should be, Mainishi isogashiku arimasen. In other words, the informal form of arimasen is “nai”.
3.Kyou wa ii tenki da. The weather today is good.
Here, it shows that the informal form of desu is da. To put the sentence in formal form, it would be “Kyouwa ii tenki desu.”
(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 19 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)
1.Nihon ryori o tabeta koto ga arimasu. I already experienced eating Japanese food.
Syntax: verb in ta-form koto ga arimasu
Usage: This is used in expressing something that you already experience. Such as the example above. tabeta is ta-form of tabemasu which means “eat” and adding koto ga arimasu means he already experience it. Another example is ” Nihon e itta koto ga arimasu” . itta is ta form of “ikimasu which means go. So this sentence means “I already experienced going to Japan”.
2.Nichiyoubi kai mono shitari eiga o mitari shimasu. On Sunday, I go shopping, watch movies and so and so forth.
Syntax: verb in ta-form+ ri other verb in ta-form+ri shimasu.
Usage:This is how you state many actions done but in no chronological order. Like in this example, watching movies doesn’t necessarily comes after the shopping. Also, the using of “shitari” implies you’ve done actions other than what you already stated. It’s also like saying ” I go shopping, watch movies and etc.”
3. Korekara dandan samuku narimasu. From now on, it will slowly become cold.
Syntax: adjective in ku-form+narimasu
Usage: This is use in expressing a “change”. samuku is the ku-form of samui which means cold. So samuku narimasu means “becoming cold or get cold”. In my translation above, I added the word slowly because of the word “dandan” which directly translates to gradually or slowly.
(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 17 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso. This is done just for the short recap)
1.Shashin o toranaide kudasai. Please don’t take pictures.
Syntax: nai-form verb+de kudasai.
Usage: This is used when you are requesting someone to not do something. Such as the case above, toranai is the nai-form of torimasu which means “to take,to capture”. Toranaide kudasai means “not to take” and the kudasai part add the “please” or a formal request.
2.Mainichi benkyou o shinakereba narimasen. You have to study everyday.
Syntax: verb in na form+nakereba narimasen.
Usage: This is used to express obligation, the need to do something important. Shinai to ikemasen is another form of saying this but it is more formal.
3. Doyoubi no gogo benkyou shinakutemo ii desu. You don’t have to study on Saturday afternoon.
Syntax: verb in na-form+kutemo ii desu.
Usage: This is the complete opposite of nakeraba-narimasen. it is used in stating of actions that is not so important to do.