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This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 23 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1.Gaikoku e iku toki pasopo–to ga irimasu. When we are going abroad, we need passport.

Syntax:u-form verb+toki

Usage:toki translates to “when”. In this example, “iku” is the u-form and base form of ikimasu which means “to go”. Gaikoku means foreign country or abroad. That’s why “Gaikoku e iku toki” literally means when we are going abroad. For the rest of the sentence, pasopo-to is “passport” in katakana and irimasu translates to “need or will need”.

2.Kono botan o osu to kikai ga ugokimasu. Push this button and the machine will work.

Sytanx: u-form verb + to

Usage:to has many uses. In this example it is use as “and” or a connector of two related complete thoughts. The first thought is “Kono botan o osu” which mean “Push this button” (this button push if you translate it literally). The second thought was Kikai ga ugokimasu which means the “machine will work”. Place the particle “to” at the middle and they became connected to each other. Pretty much like how you use “and” in English.

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Grammar Review 22: adverbial clauses, iru

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 22 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1.Korewa watashiga totta shashin desu. This is the picture that I took.

Syntax: subject +ta-form verb+object to describe

Usage: This is used in converting verb to adverb. Like in our example, totta the ta-form of torimasu which means take is an action that is used to describe the picture. So it’s more of describing the picture rather than be the action itself. it’s different from ” watashi wa kore shashin o torimashita” because this literally means “I took this picture”.

To illustrate more, lets take this as an example. Watashiwa kore eiga o mimashita. This translates to “I watched this movie”. If we’re going to convert this to “adverbial clause”, lets say we want it to be “This is the movie i watched”, then it has to be “Korewa watashiga mita eiga desu.”

2. Asoko ni iru hito wa Ri-san desu. The person over there is Ri.

Usage:iru is just the informal way of saying “imasu” which means existing. If we’re going to be polite, like we’re talking to our boss, we will say “Asoko ni imasu hito wa Ri-san desu.”

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Grammar Review 21: to omoimasu.to iimashita

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 21 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Konban ame ga furu to omoimasu. I think it will rain tonight.

Syntax: u-form verb + to omoimasu

Usage: This is used in expressing opinion. It directly translates to “I think” however unlike english, this is put at the end of the sentence.  If we would like to tell the opposite, saying,I think it will not rain tonight, it would be “Konban ame ga furanai to omoimasu”.

2. Kaisha no hito wa ashita senta e kiru to iimashita. The employee said he will come to the center tomorrow.

Syntax: Speaker was u-form verb + to iimashita

Usage: This is used when indirectly quoting someone. Just like in this example, the speaker is “kaisha no hito” meaning “company person or employee” . “Ashita e senta e kiru” is the action in question which mean literally “tomorrow I will go to center” . Then adding to iimashita to indicate that it has been said by the employee.

Another way of saying this is

Kaisha no hito wa ” Ashita, Senta e kiru” to iimashita. “I will come to the center tomorrow”, the employee said.

In this instance, you directly quote the employee. However this is only appropriate in written form.

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Grammar Review 20: Informality

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 20 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Ashita tokyo e iku. Tomorrow, I will go to Tokyo.

The ku-form of the verb is used when you want to express in informal way. It is often used between families and friends. Like for this example. Iku is the ku-form of ikimasu which is more polite and formal. Their meaning is just the same.

2.Mainichi isogashii. I am busy everyday.

When expressing informality for adjectives, it should be in the base form. Just like in the example above. If we’re going to show formality, we should have said Mainichi isogashii desu. If we’re going to put it in negative, meaning we’re going to say “not busy” it would be “Mainichi isogashikunai.” In formal form it should be, Mainishi isogashiku arimasen. In other words, the informal form of arimasen is “nai”.

3.Kyou wa ii tenki da. The weather today is good.

Here, it shows that the informal form of desu is da. To put the sentence in formal form, it would be “Kyouwa ii tenki desu.”

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Grammar Review 19: koto ga arimasu,shitari,narimasu

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 19 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1.Nihon ryori o tabeta koto ga arimasu. I already experienced eating Japanese food.

Syntax: verb in ta-form koto ga arimasu

Usage: This is used in expressing something that you already experience. Such as the example above. tabeta is ta-form of tabemasu which means “eat” and adding koto ga arimasu means he already experience it. Another example is ” Nihon e itta koto ga arimasu” . itta is ta form of “ikimasu which means go. So this sentence means “I already experienced going to Japan”.

2.Nichiyoubi kai mono shitari eiga o mitari shimasu. On Sunday, I go shopping, watch movies and so and so forth.

Syntax: verb in ta-form+ ri other verb in ta-form+ri shimasu.

Usage:This is how you state many actions done but in no chronological order. Like in this example, watching movies doesn’t necessarily comes after the shopping. Also, the using of “shitari” implies you’ve done actions other than what you already stated. It’s also like saying ” I go shopping, watch movies and etc.”

3. Korekara dandan samuku narimasu. From now on, it will slowly become cold.

Syntax: adjective in ku-form+narimasu

Usage: This is use in expressing a “change”. samuku is the ku-form of samui which means cold. So samuku narimasu means “becoming cold or get cold”. In my translation above, I added the word slowly because of the word “dandan” which directly translates to gradually or slowly.

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Grammar Review 18: Koto ga dekimasu, koto desu,mae ni

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 18 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned.)

1.Ri-san wa Kanji o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Ri can read Kanji.

Syntax: verb in simple form+koto ga dekimasu.

Usage:This is use for expressing ability. The opposite is dekimasen/dekinai. Ri-san wa kainji o yomu koto ga dekimasen means Ri can’t read Kanji.

2.Watashino shumi wa eiga o miru koto desu. My hobby is watching movies.

Syntax: verb in ru-form+koto desu

Usage:This is use to turn a verb into gerunds. For example, watch to watching.  eiga o mimasu means “to watch movie”. eiga o miru koto desu to “watching movies”.

3. Neru mae ni, hon o yomimasu. Before I sleep, I read books.

Syntax: verb in ru-form+mae ni, verb in masu form.

Usage: Mae ni is used to expressed an action done before another action. Such like an example above. neru is nemasu in ru-form which means sleeping. Neru mae ni, literally means before sleep.

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Grammar Review 17: naide kudasai, kereba narimasen

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 17 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso. This is done just for the short recap)

1.Shashin o toranaide kudasai. Please don’t take pictures.

Syntax: nai-form verb+de kudasai.

Usage: This is used when you are requesting someone to not do something. Such as the case above, toranai is  the nai-form of torimasu which means “to take,to capture”. Toranaide kudasai means “not to take” and the kudasai part  add the “please” or a formal request.

2.Mainichi benkyou o shinakereba narimasen. You have to study everyday.

Syntax: verb in na form+nakereba narimasen.

Usage: This is used to express obligation, the need to do something important. Shinai to ikemasen is another form of saying this but it is more formal.

3. Doyoubi no gogo benkyou shinakutemo ii desu. You don’t have to study on Saturday afternoon.

Syntax: verb in na-form+kutemo ii desu.

Usage: This is the complete opposite of nakeraba-narimasen. it is used in stating of actions that is not so important to do.