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Grammar Review 24: Giving and Receiving in Japanese (kuremashita,agemashita,moraimashita)

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This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 24 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Kimura-san wa watashini nekutai o kuremashita. Kimurasan gave me a necktie.

Syntax: Giver + wa + Receiver + ni + object o kuremashita.

Usage:This is how to express someone giving an object to to other. Kuremashita translates to “gave”. It is actually has the same meaning with the word “agemashita” which is the past tense of ageru/agemasu. The only difference is you will only use kuremashita when you or one of your family is the receiver of the action.  For example, if you want to tell Kimura gave a necktie to your sister. That would be Kimura-san wa imoto ni nekutai o kuremashita. But if you want to tell that Kimura-san gave a necktie to someone else let’s say a person named Tanaka, that should be Kimura-san wa Tanaka-san ni nekutai o agemashita.

This is actually a matter of showing politeness. Kuremasu is like showing that the giver is on higher status than yourself. This is elaborately explained in this site.

2. Watashiwa Kimura-san ni kasa o kashite agemashita. I lend an umbrella to Kimura.

Syntax: Giver + wa + Receiver ni +object o +action to give in te-form, agemashita.

Usage: This is like a more caring or polite version of Watashiwa Kimura-san ni kasa o kashimashita. Basically, the meaning is the same. But putting te-form verb + agemashita is like saying ” I humbly lend my umbrella to Kimura because he really needs it. I’m really concerned that he might get sick.”  I might be exagerrating but “agemashita” here is putting a “concerned” tone to the sentence.

3. Watashi wa Suzuki-san ni Nihongo o oshiete moraimashita. I received Nihongo teachings from Suzuki/ I had Suzuki to teach me Nihongo.

Syntax: Receiver wa + Giver ni + object o + verb 0n te-form + moraimashita.

Usage: This is the way to express “receiving” putting the receiver as the subject of the sentence. Just like the opposite of the first example. If you would take the giver as the subject of this sentence, this will be Suzuki-san wa watashini oshiete kuremashita.

4. Kanai-wa watashi ni kodomo no shashin o okutte kuremashita. My wife send me a picture of our child.

Syntax: Giver +wa +Receiver ni + object  o + te-form verb kuremashita.

Usage: Again , kuremashita is used in giving which I/the narrator is the receiver. This is different from number one in such that this time, the object is an “action” rather than a thing like a necktie. The object here is okutte, a te-form of okurimasu which means “send”.

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This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 23 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1.Gaikoku e iku toki pasopo–to ga irimasu. When we are going abroad, we need passport.

Syntax:u-form verb+toki

Usage:toki translates to “when”. In this example, “iku” is the u-form and base form of ikimasu which means “to go”. Gaikoku means foreign country or abroad. That’s why “Gaikoku e iku toki” literally means when we are going abroad. For the rest of the sentence, pasopo-to is “passport” in katakana and irimasu translates to “need or will need”.

2.Kono botan o osu to kikai ga ugokimasu. Push this button and the machine will work.

Sytanx: u-form verb + to

Usage:to has many uses. In this example it is use as “and” or a connector of two related complete thoughts. The first thought is “Kono botan o osu” which mean “Push this button” (this button push if you translate it literally). The second thought was Kikai ga ugokimasu which means the “machine will work”. Place the particle “to” at the middle and they became connected to each other. Pretty much like how you use “and” in English.

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Grammar Review 19: koto ga arimasu,shitari,narimasu

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 19 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1.Nihon ryori o tabeta koto ga arimasu. I already experienced eating Japanese food.

Syntax: verb in ta-form koto ga arimasu

Usage: This is used in expressing something that you already experience. Such as the example above. tabeta is ta-form of tabemasu which means “eat” and adding koto ga arimasu means he already experience it. Another example is ” Nihon e itta koto ga arimasu” . itta is ta form of “ikimasu which means go. So this sentence means “I already experienced going to Japan”.

2.Nichiyoubi kai mono shitari eiga o mitari shimasu. On Sunday, I go shopping, watch movies and so and so forth.

Syntax: verb in ta-form+ ri other verb in ta-form+ri shimasu.

Usage:This is how you state many actions done but in no chronological order. Like in this example, watching movies doesn’t necessarily comes after the shopping. Also, the using of “shitari” implies you’ve done actions other than what you already stated. It’s also like saying ” I go shopping, watch movies and etc.”

3. Korekara dandan samuku narimasu. From now on, it will slowly become cold.

Syntax: adjective in ku-form+narimasu

Usage: This is use in expressing a “change”. samuku is the ku-form of samui which means cold. So samuku narimasu means “becoming cold or get cold”. In my translation above, I added the word slowly because of the word “dandan” which directly translates to gradually or slowly.

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Grammar Review 17: naide kudasai, kereba narimasen

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 17 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso. This is done just for the short recap)

1.Shashin o toranaide kudasai. Please don’t take pictures.

Syntax: nai-form verb+de kudasai.

Usage: This is used when you are requesting someone to not do something. Such as the case above, toranai is  the nai-form of torimasu which means “to take,to capture”. Toranaide kudasai means “not to take” and the kudasai part  add the “please” or a formal request.

2.Mainichi benkyou o shinakereba narimasen. You have to study everyday.

Syntax: verb in na form+nakereba narimasen.

Usage: This is used to express obligation, the need to do something important. Shinai to ikemasen is another form of saying this but it is more formal.

3. Doyoubi no gogo benkyou shinakutemo ii desu. You don’t have to study on Saturday afternoon.

Syntax: verb in na-form+kutemo ii desu.

Usage: This is the complete opposite of nakeraba-narimasen. it is used in stating of actions that is not so important to do.

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Grammar Review 16

I was brushing on my grammar and I decided that I will blog from Lesson 16 of Shin Nihongo no Kiso I book. I already studied Nihongo before but from this lesson onwards, it is already unfamiliar with me.  I used this book  and I think it is the best book for beginners like me. It is easy to understand the exercises are engaging.

So here it is, the start of my grammar review.

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Translations and Breakdown of grammar points:

1. Asa okite,gohan o tabete,kaisha e ikimasu. I wake up in the morning,eat my breakfast then go to work.

This sentence shows how to express actions in chronological order. The syntax is (te form of the verb),(te form of the verb),(masu form of the verb)

2.Shigoto ga owatte kara,sugu uchi e kaerimasu. After I finish my work, I immediately go home.

This sentence shows how the actions after an action. The syntax is (te form verb+kara, masu form verb)

3.Tokyo wa hito ga ookute,nigiyaka desu. Tokyo is crowded and lively.

This shows how to describe a subject with multiple adjectives using te form of the verb again. (te or de form adjective,simple form adjective). ookute is the te-form of adjective ooi which means many. Hito ga ookute literally means many people which means crowded.

4. Hansan wa do no hito desu ka? What kind of person is Han?

Ano… kami ga nagakute,kirei na hito desu. Ummm She’s a long haired and beautiful person.

Again this is an example of describing a subject using te form. nagakute is the te-form of adjective nagai which means long. kirei na is a simple form of adjective that means beautiful.

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Nihongo Grammar List Part 3

Nihongo Grammar Part 3: From 11-15

11.から kara

Meaning:Because (reason)

Examples

Ashita test desu kara benkyo shimasu – I will study because there will be a test tommorow

12.ている te iru

Meaning

an action in progress, verbs that described continuous, activity that last for some time, state, changes that are more or less instantaneous, everyday exercise

Examples

Ken wa benkyo shite imasu – Ken is studying(right now)

Watashi wa nigongo o oshiete imasu- I teach Japanese(everyday excise) or I am teaching Japanese(now)

kanajo wa kekko shite imasu- She is married

13.にいく ni iku

Meaning:Verb stem + ni iku means ” Go to verb”

Examples

Tabe ni iku – go to eat
Nomi ni iku – go to drink

 

 

14.ないでください naide kudasai

Meaning:To request that someone refrain from doing something

Negative stem + naide kudasai – Please do not …

Examples
hanasanaide kudasai – Please do not speak
nenaide kudasai – please do not sleep

  

15.のがすきです noga suki desu

Meaning:I like to verb.
Verb dictionary from + noga suki desu

Examples

Watashi wa utau noga suki desu – I like to sing

Kanojo wa tennis o suru no ga suki desu – She likes to play tennis

For Part 2:http://out—skirts.tumblr.com/post/12320418614/nihongo-grammar-list-part-2

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Nihongo Grammar List Part 2

List from 6 -10!

Part 1: http://out—skirts.tumblr.com/day/2011/11/04

6.ませんか

masen ka

Meaning:stem +ませんか is used to invite someone to do it. Won’t you – , How about – , Wouldn’t you –

Examples
Issho ni tabemasen ka? – Won’t you eat with me?
Date shimasen ka? – Won’t you go on a date?

 

7.は wa

Meaning:Topic maker, As for – , about

Examples
Kyou wa , Tokyo ni ikimasu – As for today, I will go to Tokyo.
Watash no senmon wa nihongo desu – As fo my major, It is Japanese

 

8.てください—te kudasai

Meaning: Te form + kusasai – to make polite request to another person, Please do

Examples

Yonde kudasai – Please read
Tatte – kudasai – Please stand up
Okite kudasai – Please wake up


9.てもいいです—te mo ii desu

Meaning:Te-form + mo ii desu means, You can do… or You may do… describe an activity that is permitted.

Examples

(to your kids) TV o mite mo ii desu – You can watch TV (permisson)

Note: te mo ii desu ka . means, May I or Can I do something( asking permisson)

  

10.てはいけません —-te wa ikemasen

Meaning Te-form + wa ikemasen means, to give someone permission to do something.You can’t do…

Examples

Class de nete wa ikemasen – In the class, You can’t sleep

Part 3 in Queue!