Grammar Review 25: tara,temo Expressing of Possibilities


This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 25 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Ame ga futtara,ikimasen. if it rains, I will not go.

Syntax: ta-form verb +tara,consequences

Usage: The use of tara translates to “if” in english, only it is used in the end of the clause or condition. Like for this example “Ame ga futtara” directly translates to “rain falls if” if the sequence is to considered. The consequence is then express after. “I will not go”

2. Ame ga futtemo, ikimasu. Even if the rain falls, I will still go.

Syntax: te-form verb+mo, consequence

Usage: The use of “te+form verb + mo” here is to express “Even if” but also located at the end of the conditional clause. So for this example, if you translate it literally, “rain falls even if”. No matter what happens, even if it rain, he still would like to go. This is expressing extreme determination.


Grammar Review 22: adverbial clauses, iru


(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 22 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1.Korewa watashiga totta shashin desu. This is the picture that I took.

Syntax: subject +ta-form verb+object to describe

Usage: This is used in converting verb to adverb. Like in our example, totta the ta-form of torimasu which means take is an action that is used to describe the picture. So it’s more of describing the picture rather than be the action itself. it’s different from ” watashi wa kore shashin o torimashita” because this literally means “I took this picture”.

To illustrate more, lets take this as an example. Watashiwa kore eiga o mimashita. This translates to “I watched this movie”. If we’re going to convert this to “adverbial clause”, lets say we want it to be “This is the movie i watched”, then it has to be “Korewa watashiga mita eiga desu.”

2. Asoko ni iru hito wa Ri-san desu. The person over there is Ri.

Usage:iru is just the informal way of saying “imasu” which means existing. If we’re going to be polite, like we’re talking to our boss, we will say “Asoko ni imasu hito wa Ri-san desu.”


Grammar Review 21: to omoimasu.to iimashita


(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 21 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Konban ame ga furu to omoimasu. I think it will rain tonight.

Syntax: u-form verb + to omoimasu

Usage: This is used in expressing opinion. It directly translates to “I think” however unlike english, this is put at the end of the sentence.  If we would like to tell the opposite, saying,I think it will not rain tonight, it would be “Konban ame ga furanai to omoimasu”.

2. Kaisha no hito wa ashita senta e kiru to iimashita. The employee said he will come to the center tomorrow.

Syntax: Speaker was u-form verb + to iimashita

Usage: This is used when indirectly quoting someone. Just like in this example, the speaker is “kaisha no hito” meaning “company person or employee” . “Ashita e senta e kiru” is the action in question which mean literally “tomorrow I will go to center” . Then adding to iimashita to indicate that it has been said by the employee.

Another way of saying this is

Kaisha no hito wa ” Ashita, Senta e kiru” to iimashita. “I will come to the center tomorrow”, the employee said.

In this instance, you directly quote the employee. However this is only appropriate in written form.


Grammar Review 18: Koto ga dekimasu, koto desu,mae ni


(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 18 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned.)

1.Ri-san wa Kanji o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Ri can read Kanji.

Syntax: verb in simple form+koto ga dekimasu.

Usage:This is use for expressing ability. The opposite is dekimasen/dekinai. Ri-san wa kainji o yomu koto ga dekimasen means Ri can’t read Kanji.

2.Watashino shumi wa eiga o miru koto desu. My hobby is watching movies.

Syntax: verb in ru-form+koto desu

Usage:This is use to turn a verb into gerunds. For example, watch to watching.  eiga o mimasu means “to watch movie”. eiga o miru koto desu to “watching movies”.

3. Neru mae ni, hon o yomimasu. Before I sleep, I read books.

Syntax: verb in ru-form+mae ni, verb in masu form.

Usage: Mae ni is used to expressed an action done before another action. Such like an example above. neru is nemasu in ru-form which means sleeping. Neru mae ni, literally means before sleep.


Grammar Review 17: naide kudasai, kereba narimasen


(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 17 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso. This is done just for the short recap)

1.Shashin o toranaide kudasai. Please don’t take pictures.

Syntax: nai-form verb+de kudasai.

Usage: This is used when you are requesting someone to not do something. Such as the case above, toranai is  the nai-form of torimasu which means “to take,to capture”. Toranaide kudasai means “not to take” and the kudasai part  add the “please” or a formal request.

2.Mainichi benkyou o shinakereba narimasen. You have to study everyday.

Syntax: verb in na form+nakereba narimasen.

Usage: This is used to express obligation, the need to do something important. Shinai to ikemasen is another form of saying this but it is more formal.

3. Doyoubi no gogo benkyou shinakutemo ii desu. You don’t have to study on Saturday afternoon.

Syntax: verb in na-form+kutemo ii desu.

Usage: This is the complete opposite of nakeraba-narimasen. it is used in stating of actions that is not so important to do.