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Use of ‘shi’ to Mention Many Reasons

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A:とうして  まつやま さん が すき てす か。Why do you like Matsuyama?

B. さあ….まつやまさん な かわいし、けっこ だ し、 はんさむ  な おとこ  の ひと だ し。 uhmm..Because Matsuyama is cute,wonderful and a handsome man.

We use ‘shi’ or し  when we want to state many reasons consecutively. It is placed  after an adjective or the reason itself. For the example above ,

i-adjective ‘ Kawaii ‘ became ‘kawaishi’.  Replace last i with shi. Because he is cute.

na-adjective ‘kekko na’ became kekko da shi. Replace na with ‘da shi’. Because he s wonderful.

Also a  reason ending in desu, will result to desu becoming dashi. Like for the example above , ” hansamu na otoko no hito desu”  became ”hansamu na otoko no hito da shi” . Because he’s a handsome man.

Summary.
i adjective — drop i, add shi
Na adjective — drop na, add da shi
Reason  desu — drop desu, add  da shi

How about you? Why do you like a certain person?

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Grammar Review 24: Giving and Receiving in Japanese (kuremashita,agemashita,moraimashita)

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This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 24 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Kimura-san wa watashini nekutai o kuremashita. Kimurasan gave me a necktie.

Syntax: Giver + wa + Receiver + ni + object o kuremashita.

Usage:This is how to express someone giving an object to to other. Kuremashita translates to “gave”. It is actually has the same meaning with the word “agemashita” which is the past tense of ageru/agemasu. The only difference is you will only use kuremashita when you or one of your family is the receiver of the action.  For example, if you want to tell Kimura gave a necktie to your sister. That would be Kimura-san wa imoto ni nekutai o kuremashita. But if you want to tell that Kimura-san gave a necktie to someone else let’s say a person named Tanaka, that should be Kimura-san wa Tanaka-san ni nekutai o agemashita.

This is actually a matter of showing politeness. Kuremasu is like showing that the giver is on higher status than yourself. This is elaborately explained in this site.

2. Watashiwa Kimura-san ni kasa o kashite agemashita. I lend an umbrella to Kimura.

Syntax: Giver + wa + Receiver ni +object o +action to give in te-form, agemashita.

Usage: This is like a more caring or polite version of Watashiwa Kimura-san ni kasa o kashimashita. Basically, the meaning is the same. But putting te-form verb + agemashita is like saying ” I humbly lend my umbrella to Kimura because he really needs it. I’m really concerned that he might get sick.”  I might be exagerrating but “agemashita” here is putting a “concerned” tone to the sentence.

3. Watashi wa Suzuki-san ni Nihongo o oshiete moraimashita. I received Nihongo teachings from Suzuki/ I had Suzuki to teach me Nihongo.

Syntax: Receiver wa + Giver ni + object o + verb 0n te-form + moraimashita.

Usage: This is the way to express “receiving” putting the receiver as the subject of the sentence. Just like the opposite of the first example. If you would take the giver as the subject of this sentence, this will be Suzuki-san wa watashini oshiete kuremashita.

4. Kanai-wa watashi ni kodomo no shashin o okutte kuremashita. My wife send me a picture of our child.

Syntax: Giver +wa +Receiver ni + object  o + te-form verb kuremashita.

Usage: Again , kuremashita is used in giving which I/the narrator is the receiver. This is different from number one in such that this time, the object is an “action” rather than a thing like a necktie. The object here is okutte, a te-form of okurimasu which means “send”.

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This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 23 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso I book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1.Gaikoku e iku toki pasopo–to ga irimasu. When we are going abroad, we need passport.

Syntax:u-form verb+toki

Usage:toki translates to “when”. In this example, “iku” is the u-form and base form of ikimasu which means “to go”. Gaikoku means foreign country or abroad. That’s why “Gaikoku e iku toki” literally means when we are going abroad. For the rest of the sentence, pasopo-to is “passport” in katakana and irimasu translates to “need or will need”.

2.Kono botan o osu to kikai ga ugokimasu. Push this button and the machine will work.

Sytanx: u-form verb + to

Usage:to has many uses. In this example it is use as “and” or a connector of two related complete thoughts. The first thought is “Kono botan o osu” which mean “Push this button” (this button push if you translate it literally). The second thought was Kikai ga ugokimasu which means the “machine will work”. Place the particle “to” at the middle and they became connected to each other. Pretty much like how you use “and” in English.

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Grammar Review 21: to omoimasu.to iimashita

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 21 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Konban ame ga furu to omoimasu. I think it will rain tonight.

Syntax: u-form verb + to omoimasu

Usage: This is used in expressing opinion. It directly translates to “I think” however unlike english, this is put at the end of the sentence.  If we would like to tell the opposite, saying,I think it will not rain tonight, it would be “Konban ame ga furanai to omoimasu”.

2. Kaisha no hito wa ashita senta e kiru to iimashita. The employee said he will come to the center tomorrow.

Syntax: Speaker was u-form verb + to iimashita

Usage: This is used when indirectly quoting someone. Just like in this example, the speaker is “kaisha no hito” meaning “company person or employee” . “Ashita e senta e kiru” is the action in question which mean literally “tomorrow I will go to center” . Then adding to iimashita to indicate that it has been said by the employee.

Another way of saying this is

Kaisha no hito wa ” Ashita, Senta e kiru” to iimashita. “I will come to the center tomorrow”, the employee said.

In this instance, you directly quote the employee. However this is only appropriate in written form.

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Grammar Review 20: Informality

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 20 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned in this chapter.)

1. Ashita tokyo e iku. Tomorrow, I will go to Tokyo.

The ku-form of the verb is used when you want to express in informal way. It is often used between families and friends. Like for this example. Iku is the ku-form of ikimasu which is more polite and formal. Their meaning is just the same.

2.Mainichi isogashii. I am busy everyday.

When expressing informality for adjectives, it should be in the base form. Just like in the example above. If we’re going to show formality, we should have said Mainichi isogashii desu. If we’re going to put it in negative, meaning we’re going to say “not busy” it would be “Mainichi isogashikunai.” In formal form it should be, Mainishi isogashiku arimasen. In other words, the informal form of arimasen is “nai”.

3.Kyou wa ii tenki da. The weather today is good.

Here, it shows that the informal form of desu is da. To put the sentence in formal form, it would be “Kyouwa ii tenki desu.”

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Grammar Review 18: Koto ga dekimasu, koto desu,mae ni

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 18 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso book. This is done just for the short recap of what I learned.)

1.Ri-san wa Kanji o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Ri can read Kanji.

Syntax: verb in simple form+koto ga dekimasu.

Usage:This is use for expressing ability. The opposite is dekimasen/dekinai. Ri-san wa kainji o yomu koto ga dekimasen means Ri can’t read Kanji.

2.Watashino shumi wa eiga o miru koto desu. My hobby is watching movies.

Syntax: verb in ru-form+koto desu

Usage:This is use to turn a verb into gerunds. For example, watch to watching.  eiga o mimasu means “to watch movie”. eiga o miru koto desu to “watching movies”.

3. Neru mae ni, hon o yomimasu. Before I sleep, I read books.

Syntax: verb in ru-form+mae ni, verb in masu form.

Usage: Mae ni is used to expressed an action done before another action. Such like an example above. neru is nemasu in ru-form which means sleeping. Neru mae ni, literally means before sleep.

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Grammar Review 17: naide kudasai, kereba narimasen

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(This is a screenshot of opening of chapter 17 of Shin Nihongo No Kiso. This is done just for the short recap)

1.Shashin o toranaide kudasai. Please don’t take pictures.

Syntax: nai-form verb+de kudasai.

Usage: This is used when you are requesting someone to not do something. Such as the case above, toranai is  the nai-form of torimasu which means “to take,to capture”. Toranaide kudasai means “not to take” and the kudasai part  add the “please” or a formal request.

2.Mainichi benkyou o shinakereba narimasen. You have to study everyday.

Syntax: verb in na form+nakereba narimasen.

Usage: This is used to express obligation, the need to do something important. Shinai to ikemasen is another form of saying this but it is more formal.

3. Doyoubi no gogo benkyou shinakutemo ii desu. You don’t have to study on Saturday afternoon.

Syntax: verb in na-form+kutemo ii desu.

Usage: This is the complete opposite of nakeraba-narimasen. it is used in stating of actions that is not so important to do.